Teachers’ Cognitive Processes from the Perspective of Distributed Cognition: An Analysis Focused on Teachers-Made Assessments
|論文名稱(英文)：||Teachers’ Cognitive Processes from the Perspective of Distributed Cognition: An Analysis Focused on Teachers-Made Assessments|
|中文關鍵字：||人造物; 認知過程; 分布認知; 教師自編評量; 雙向細目表|
|英文關鍵字：||artifact; cognitive process; distributed cognition; teachers-made assessment; Two-Way Specification Table|
|作者專長：||教育行政; 教師專業發展; 學校集體智慧|
|摘要(英文)：||Few studies deal with how the gap between artifacts and task in terms of members’
cognition distributed (Halverson & Clifford, 2006) in the field of teaching practice.
The present study explored how the teachers’ cognition evolved with a close look at
the artifact, and the processes adopted by “Two-Way Specifi cation Table” (TWST) for
teachers-made assessments as an artifact designed for nine students’ tests in “SiSi”
Elementary School. Participatory observation, interviews, and documents were employed.
The following conclusions were drawn: Firstly, after the implementation of TWST in SiSi
Elementary School, teachers had produced 13 kinds of cognitive systems respectively.
Secondly, during the process of implementing TWST, teachers gradually presented
different stages of cognitive systems such as questioning, reflection, transformation, and
creativity. Moreover, continuous discussions and sharing, the need for experts’ assistance,
developing the technological systems, and the positive attitude of principal were key
elements in the functioning of the TWST. Lastly, after the implementation of TWST
in SiSi Elementary School, it was found that teachers’ cognitive systems were slightly
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