Generating New Paths for Teacher Professional Development (TPD) Through MOOCs
|論文名稱(英文)：||Generating New Paths for Teacher Professional Development (TPD) Through MOOCs|
|中文關鍵字：||教師專業發展; 磨課師; 線上課程; 線上學習; 教學革新|
|英文關鍵字：||teacher professional development, MOOCs, online courses; online learning; pedagogical innovation|
|作者專長：||磨課師; 課程與教學; 通識教育|
|摘要(英文)：||TThe study investigates the feasibility and means for facilitating teacher professional development (TPD) by massive open online courses (MOOCs). Through a literature review, limitations in conventional TPD approaches due to time, location, capacity, and budget issues were discovered. By exploring recent publications on information and communication technologies (ICT) in online learning and pedagogical innovation, this study has recognized that MOOCS are a feasible path for TPD since MOOCs are free and open for all with few limitations of time, location, and participation. The research has found several means for TPD through MOOCs, such as improving teacher’s pedagogical literacy, professional subject knowledge, and professional subject teaching competency by MOOCs. Further, this study provides a critical reflection on the advantages and limitations of TPD through MOOCs and proposes some remedies for these limitations. Finally, the author infers some implications for TPD: using the advantages of MOOCs to facilitate TPD, providing teachers with support measures, facilitating the innovation of MOOCs, and encouraging teachers to be active learners in MOOCs.|
|參考文獻：||Anderson, J. Q. (2013). Individualization of higher education: How technological
evolution can revolutionize opportunities for teaching and learning. International
Social Science Journal, 64(213-214), 305-316.
Breslow, L., Pritchard, D. E., DeBoer, J., Stump, G. S., Ho, A. D., & Seaton, D. T. (2013).
Studying learning in the worldwide classroom. Research into edX’s first MOOC.
Research & Practice in Assessment, 8, 13-25.
Camilleri, V., Busuttil, L., & Montebello, M. (2014). MOOCs: Exploiting networks
for the education of the masses or just a trend? In G. Mallia (Ed.). Integrating
social network use in education (pp. 348-366). Hershey, PA: Information Science
Carneiro, R., Looney, J., & Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2015). Learning from the past, looking
to the future: Issues and agendas in education. European Journal of Education,
Chang, R. I., Hung, Y. H., & Lin, C. F. (2015). Survey of learning experiences and
infl uence of learning style preferences on user intentions regarding MOOCs. British
Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 528-541.
Christensen, C. M., & Eyring, H. J. (2011). The innovative university: Changing the DNA
of higher education from the inside out. San Francisco, CA: A Jossey-Bass.
Clem, C., & Junco, R. (2015). The future of technology in education. In L. D. Rosen, N.
Cheever, & L. M. Carrier (Eds.). The Wiley handbook of psychology, technology,
and society (pp. 514-532). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Chen, C. Y. (2014). The study of the current condition for implementing faculty
professional learning community in higher education in Taiwan. Contemporary
Educational Research Quarterly, 22(2), 1-46.
Chen, P. Y. (2008). Professional growth and empowerment of teachers through
conversations with self and settings. Kaohsiung Normal University Journal, 24, 21-
Choy, S. P., Chen, X., & Bugarin, R. (2006). Teacher professional development in 1999-
2000: What teachers, principals, and district staff report. Washington, DC: National
Center for Education Statistics.
Davidson, C. (2013, September 27). What was the fi rst MOOC? [Blog post]. Retrieved
from http://www.hastac.org/blogs/cathy-davidson/2013/09/27/what-was-fi rst-mooc
Delors, J. (1996) Learning: The treasure within, report to UNESCO of the International
Commission on Education for the twenty-first century. Paris, France: The United
Nations Education, Scientifi c and Cultural Organization.
Devedzic, V. (2006). Semantic web and education. New York, NY: Springer.
Dodson, M. N., Kitburi, K., & Berge, Z. L. (2015). Possibilities for MOOCs in corporate
training and development. Performance Improvement, 54(10), 14-21.
Downes, S. (2004). From classrooms to learning environments: A midrange projection of
E-Learning technology. College Quarterly, 4(3), 1-9.
Finger, G., & Lee, M. (2014). Leadership and reshaping schooling in a networked world.
Education Sciences, 4, 64-86.
Fredrick, K. (2014). MOOC-ing around. School Library Monthly, 30(5), 23-24.
Glassman, M., & Burbidge, J. (2014). The dialectical relationship between place and
space in education: How the internet is changing our perceptions of teaching and
reasoning. Educational Theory, 46(1), 15-32.
Harwell, S. H. (2003). Teacher professional development: It’s not an event, it’s a process.
Waco, TX: CORD.
Hayes, S. (2015). MOOCs and quality: A review of the recent literature. Gloucester,
England: The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education.
Hew, K. F. (2016). Promoting engagement in online courses: What strategies can we
learn from three highly rated MOOCs. British Journal of Educational Technology,
Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2014). Students’ and instructors’ use of massive open
online courses (MOOCs): Motivations and challenges. Educational Research
Review, 12, 45-58.
Ho, A. D., Chuang, I., Reich, J., Coleman, C. A., Whitehill, J., Northcutt, C. G., ...Petersen,
R. (2015, March 30). HarvardX and MITx: Two years of open online courses Fall
2012-Summer 2014. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2586847
Holotescu, C., Grosseck, G., Cretu, V., & Danciu, E. (2014). The power of the three
words and on acronym OER vs OER. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,
Hood, N., Littlejohn, A., & Milligan, C. (2015). Context counts: How learners’ contexts
infl uence learning in a MOOC. Computers & Education, 91, 83-91.
Huang, S. M. (2010). Analysis on the policy context of teacher profession development
evaluation. Formasan Education and Society, 21, 83-115.
Jacoby, J. (2014). The disruptive potential of the Massive Open Online Course: A
literature review. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 18(1), 73–85.
Jansen, D., & Schuwer, R. (2015). Institutional MOOC strategies in Europe Status report
based on a mapping survey conducted in October-December 2014. Maastricht,
Netherlands: European Association of Distance Teaching Universities. Retrieved
Kizilcec, R. F., Piech, C., & Schneider, E. (2013). Deconstructing disengagement:
Analyzing learner subpopulations in massive open online courses. In proceedings
of the third international conference on learning analytics and knowledge (pp. 170–
179). New York, NY: ACM.
Kopcha, T. J., Rieber, L. P., & Walker, B. B. (2016). Understanding university faculty
perceptions about innovation in teaching and technology. British Journal of
Educational Technology, 47(5), 945-957.
Li, S. C., & Choi, T. H. & Choi, T. H. (2014). Does social capital matter? A quantitative approach to
examining technology infusion in schools. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,
Little, J.W. (1993). Teachers’ professional development in a climate of educational
reform. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15(2), 129–152.
Littlejohn, A., Hood, N., Milligan, C., & Mustain, P. (2016). Learning in MOOCs:
Motivations and self-regulated learning in MOOCs. Internet and Higher Education,
Liu, H. W., Jehng, J. C. J., Chen, C. H. V., & Fang, M. (2014). What factors affect
teachers in Taiwan in becoming more involved in professional development? A
hierarchical linear analysis. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25(3), 381-
Liu, S. H. (2013). Teacher professional development for technology integration in a
primary school learning community, Technology, Pedagogy, and Education, 22(1),
Liu, S. H. (2017). Perceptions on the purposes of and concerns about collaborative lesson
study in the professional development of Taiwanese secondary school teachers.
Contemporary Educational Research Quarterly, 25(2), 43-76.
Liu, S. H., Tsai, H. C., & Huang, Y. T. (2015). Collaborative professional development
of mentor teachers and pre-service teachers in relation to technology integration.
Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), 161-172.
Loya, A., Gopal, A., Shukla, I., Jermann, P., & Tormey, R. (2015). Conscientious
behaviour, fl exibility and learning in massive open on-line courses. Procedia-Social
and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 519-525.
Lytras, M. D., Mathkour, H. I., Abdalla, H., Ai-Halabi, W., Yanez-Marquez, C., &
Siqueira, S. W. M. (2015). An emerging - Social and emerging computing enabled
philosophical paradigm for collaborative learning systems: Toward high effective
next generation learning systems for the knowledge society. Computers in Human
Behavior, 51, 557-561.
Macleod, H., Haywood, J., Woodgate, A., & Alkhatnai, M. (2015). Emerging patterns in
MOOCs: Learners, course designs and directions. TechTrends: Linking Research &
Practice to Improve Learning, 59(1), 56-63.
McAndrew, P., & Scanion, E. (2013). Open learning at a distance: Lessons for struggling
MOOCs. Science, 342, 1450-1451.
McNeill, K. L., & Knight, A. M. (2013). Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge of
science argumentation: The impact of professional development on K-12 teachers.
Science Education, 97(6), 936-972.
Means, B., Bakia, M., & Murphy, R. (2014). Learning online: What research tells us
about whether, when and how. New York, NY: Routledge.
Meyer, K. A. (2014). Student engagement in online learning: What works and why. A
SHE Higher Education Report, 40(6), 1-114.
Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2014). Supporting professional learning in a massive
open online course. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed
Learning, 15(5). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/
Ministry of Education. (2014). Directions governing for the 12-year basic education
curricula. Retrieved from https://www.naer.edu.tw/files/15-1000-7944,c639-1.
Mirriahi, N., Alonzo, D., McLntyre, S., Kligyte, G., & Fox, B. (2015). Blended learning
innovations: Leadership and change in one Australian institution. International
Journal of Education & Development using Information & Communication
Technology, 11(1), 4-16.
Moreillon, J. (2015). Increasing interactivity in the online learning environment:
Using digital tools to support students in socially constructed meaning-making.
TechTrends, 59(3), 41-47.
Nath, A., & Agarwal, S. (2014). Massive open online courses (MOOCs) - A
comprehensive study and its application to green computing in higher education
institution. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering Research,
Nkuyubwatsi, B. (2013). Evaluation of massive open online courses (MOOCs) from the
learner’s perspective. In Proceedings of the international conference on e-Learning
(pp. 340-346). Sophie Antipolis, France: SKEMA Business School.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2009). Creating effective
teaching and learning environments: First results from TALIS. Paris, France: Author.
Ospina-Delgado, J., & Zorio-Grima, A. (2016). Innovation at universities: A fuzzy-set
approach for MOOC-intensiveness. Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1325-
Ostashewski, N., & Reid, D. (2012). Delivering a MOOC using a social networking site:
The SMOOC design model. In Proceedings of the IADIS international conference
on internet technologies and society (ITS 2012), Nov 28-30 2012 (pp. 217-222).
Perth, Australia: IADIS.
Partnership for 21st Century Skill. (2009). P21 framework definitions. Retrieved from
Paul, P., Toon, E., Hadadgar, A., Jirwe, M., Saxena, N., Lim, K. T. K.,…Car, J. (2016).
Online and local area network (LAN)-based eLearning interventions for medical
doctors’ education. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, 1-15. doi:
Porter, S. (2015). To MOOC or not to MOOC: How can online learning help to build the
future of higher education? Oxford, England: Chandos.
Price, D. J. S. (1963). Little science, big science. New York, NY: Columbia University
Radford, A. W., Coningham, B., & Horn, L. (2015). MOOCs: Not just for college
students-How organizations can use MOOCs for professional development.
Employment Relations Today, 41(4), 1-15.
Radford, A., Robles, J., Cataylo, S., Horn, L., Thornton, J., & Whitfield, K. (2014).
The employer potential of MOOCs: A mixed-methods study of human resource
professionals’ thinking on MOOCs. The International Review of Research in Open
and Distributed Learning, 15(5). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/
Randall, D. L., Harrison, J. B., & West, R. E. (2013). Giving credit where credit is due:
Designing open badges for a technology integration course. TechTrends, 57(6), 88-
Rayyan, S., Fredericks, C., Colvin, K. F., Liu, A., Teodorescu, R., Barrantes, A.,…
Pritchard, D. E. (2016). A MOOC based on blended pedagogy. Journal of Computer
Assisted Learning, 32(3), 190-201.
Salmon, G., Gregory, J., Dona, K. L., & Ross, B. (2015). Experiential online
development for educators: The example of the Carpe Diem MOOC. British Journal
of Educational Technology, 46(3), 542-556.
Schaller, R. R. (1997). Moore’s law: Past, present, and future. IEEE Spectrum, 34(6), 53-
Siemens, G. (2005) Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International
Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1). Retrieved from
Siemens, G. (2006). Connectivism: Learning theory or pastime of the self-amused?
Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism_self-amused.htm
Skiba, D. J. (2013). MOOCs and the future of nursing. Nursing Education Perspectives,
Spoelstra, H., van Rosmalen, P., Houtmans, T., & Sloep, P. (2015). Team formation
instruments to enhance learner interactions in open learning environments.
Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 11-20.
Spring, H. (2016). Teaching and learning in action. Health Information and Libraries
Journal, 33, 84-88.
Stephens, M., & Jones, K. M. L. (2014). MOOCs as LIS professional development
platforms: Evaluating and refining SJSU’s first not-for-credit MOOC. Journal of
Education for Library and Information Science, 55(4), 345-361.
Sung, Y. T., Chang, K. E., & Liu, T. C. (2016). The effects of integrating mobile devices
with teaching and learning on students’ learning performance: A meta-analysis and
research synthesis. Computers & Education, 94, 252-275.
Taiwan Network Information Center. (2015). 2015 Taiwan broadband internet use
survey. Retrieved from http://www.twnic.net.tw/download/200307/20150901e.pdf
The Ministry of Education. (2015). Education statistics 2015. Taipei, Taiwan: Author.
The Ministry of Education. (2016). 2016-2020 information education master plan.
Taipei, Taiwan: Author.
The Ministry of Education. (2017). Education statistics 2017: The Republic of China.
Taipei, Taiwan: Author.
Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). A new culture of learning: Cultivating the imagination
for a world of constant chance. Retrieved from http://sites.duke.edu/arthist110_001_
Touati, A. (2016). Self-directed learning in MOOCs: A disconnect between theory and
practice. Middle Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research, 19, 15-30.
Tseng, Y. H. (2003). EFL teachers’ professional development: An alternative model.
Journal of National Hualien Teachers College, 16, 179-194.
Tuomi, I. (2013). Open educational resources and the transformation of education.
European Journal of Education, 48(1), 58-78.
UNESCO Institute for Education. (2003). Nurturing the treasure: Vision and strategy
2002-2007. Hamburg, Germany: Author.
Villegas-Reimers, E. (2003). Teacher professional development: An international review
of the literature. Paris, France: International Institute for Educational Planning.
Vivian, R., Falkner, K., & Falkner, N. (2014). Addressing the challenges of a new digital
technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional
development. Research in Learning Technology, 22. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/
Wan, H. T., & Hsu, K. Y. (2016). An innovative approach for pharmacists’ continue
education: Massive Open Online Courses, a lesson learnt. Indian Journal of
Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 50(1), 103-108.
Weng, F. Y., & Lin, S. B. (2005). A study of action research applied in teacher
professional development: The case of senior high school teachers applying action
research in central Taiwan. Journal of Research in Education Sciences, 5(2), 78-94.
Wilson, L., & Gruzd, A. (2014). MOOCs - international information and education
phenomenon? Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and
Technology, 40(5), 35-40.
World Economic Forum. (2016). The future of jobs: Employment, skills and workforce
strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.
Zhou, M. (2016). Chinese university students’ acceptance of MOOCs A selfdetermination
perspective. Computers & Education, 92-93, 194-203.